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By Darko Manevski

To create jobs and enhance a country’s wealth, there is a vital need for entrepreneurs who create new ventures.


Research by the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) has examined the factors that motivate people to become entrepreneurs and shows how elements such as financial and numeracy skills, as well as each individual’s belief in their own capabilities, although1235, and then when things are interesting, is that you view you not 144% of your like are key in leading them to found their own business.

These findings, published in The Journal of Entrepreneurship, underline the need to enhance this knowledge to foster entrepreneurship.

A job listing board hangs at the East Bay Career Center February 2, 2006 in Oakland, California.  (Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)

“There’s a need to foster financial knowledge and numeracy skills in universities and other education settings, but also to work on self-confidence, as these are the things that help people to want to create businesses more,” said Elisabet Ruiz, the principal investigator and a member of the UOC’s Faculty of Economics and Business.

The study, based on a survey of 322 people at an online university, shows that the majority of respondents lacked solid financial literacy and numeracy, and the ability to properly assess risks, which are all key factors for an entrepreneur. These findings coincide with those of worldwide studies carried out by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which stress the need to improve people’s understanding of financial matters.

As this research shows, this is a vital skill that needs to be learned. Although self-confidence (or, more specifically in this case, “entrepreneurial self-efficacy”) remains a key factor in people deciding to start a business venture, the research revealed that financial and numeracy skills can compensate for a lack of self-confidence in their entrepreneurial abilities.

U.S. Sen. Todd Young (R-ID) references a chart on rising costs during a press conference on inflation, at the Russell Senate Office Building on February 16, 2022 in Washington, DC. (Photo by Kevin Dietsch/Getty Images)

Other factors identified by this study as important in starting a venture are the perception of opportunities, a social context viewing entrepreneurship in a positive light, nearby examples serving as an example, and accurate risk assessment. Gender and employment status did not, however, appear as significant factors in entrepreneurship.

“In another, later study on financial literacy, we did find differences between men and women,” said Ruiz. “We saw that men were more willing to invest in financial education than women. Generally speaking, men also have greater levels of self-efficacy in these skills, which could explain why women tend to be less entrepreneurial or encounter greater difficulties in accessing financial markets.”

One way in which this research is innovative is that, to study the factors that foster entrepreneurship, it took account of those that are both subjective (personal perceptions of one’s entrepreneurial abilities) and objective (financial literacy, numeracy skills and risk assessment abilities). The result was that they identified three distinct groups of entrepreneurs, each with its own characteristics and differentiated by their abilities and motivations.

BATH, ENGLAND – OCTOBER 13: In this photo illustration, £1 coins are seen with the new £10 note on October 13, 2017 in Bath, England. (Photo Illustration by Matt Cardy/Getty Images)

Those with greater financial skills and good self-efficacy tended to have more social motivations than those with poorer objective knowledge. Those with a good perception of their abilities but who did not score highly in terms of financial literacy and numeracy found more motivation in identifying market opportunities. Lastly, those with low levels of subjective skills and knowledge created businesses, above all, because they were in situations where there were points of reference, such as families or friends.

Contrary to the arguments of traditional theories, entrepreneurs are not driven solely by economic factors, rather, their motivations vary considerably and include aspects such as the lack of employment opportunities, dissatisfaction with their current jobs, a search for independence or a wish to cover a social need.

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